A Richard Green

Summary

Affiliation: AstraZeneca R and D

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Nitrones as neuroprotective agents in cerebral ischemia, with particular reference to NXY-059
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough, Leics LE11 5RH, UK
    Pharmacol Ther 100:195-214. 2003
  2. pmc The metabolism of clomethiazole in gerbils and the neuroprotective and sedative activity of the metabolites
    A R Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 129:95-100. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Animal models of stroke: do they have value for discovering neuroprotective agents?
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:402-8. 2003
  4. pmc Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine
    A Richard Green
    Global Discovery CNS and Pain Control, AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RH
    Br J Pharmacol 147:S145-52. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Effect of ambient temperature and a prior neurotoxic dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on the hyperthermic response of rats to a single or repeated ('binge' ingestion) low dose of MDMA
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:264-9. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint MDMA: fact and fallacy, and the need to increase knowledge in both the scientific and popular press
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:231-3. 2004
  7. pmc Studies on the effect of MDMA ('ecstasy') on the body temperature of rats housed at different ambient room temperatures
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH
    Br J Pharmacol 146:306-12. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Free radical trapping as a therapeutic approach to neuroprotection in stroke: experimental and clinical studies with NXY-059 and free radical scavengers
    A Richard Green
    Global Discovery CNS and Pain Control, AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 4:109-18. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint A review of the mechanisms involved in the acute MDMA (ecstasy)-induced hyperthermic response
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 500:3-13. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy")
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough, LE11 5RH, UK
    Pharmacol Rev 55:463-508. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications39

  1. ncbi request reprint Nitrones as neuroprotective agents in cerebral ischemia, with particular reference to NXY-059
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough, Leics LE11 5RH, UK
    Pharmacol Ther 100:195-214. 2003
    ..NXY-059 may thus be the first compound to be examined in stroke patients using drug exposure and time to treatment that have been shown to be effective in animal models of stroke...
  2. pmc The metabolism of clomethiazole in gerbils and the neuroprotective and sedative activity of the metabolites
    A R Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 129:95-100. 2000
    ..These data suggest that the neuroprotective action of clomethiazole results from an action of the parent compound and that NLA-715 contributes to the sedative activity of the drug. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 129, 95 - 100..
  3. ncbi request reprint Animal models of stroke: do they have value for discovering neuroprotective agents?
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:402-8. 2003
    ..We review earlier guidelines on the information that is necessary from preclinical studies before a compound enters clinical trials, and propose modifications to these guidelines...
  4. pmc Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine
    A Richard Green
    Global Discovery CNS and Pain Control, AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RH
    Br J Pharmacol 147:S145-52. 2006
    ..A major challenge now is to utilise this knowledge to develop receptor-specific drugs and use the information gained to better treat central nervous system disorders...
  5. ncbi request reprint Effect of ambient temperature and a prior neurotoxic dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on the hyperthermic response of rats to a single or repeated ('binge' ingestion) low dose of MDMA
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:264-9. 2004
    ..3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) administration to rats produces acute hyperthermia and long-term neurotoxic damage to 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) neurones...
  6. ncbi request reprint MDMA: fact and fallacy, and the need to increase knowledge in both the scientific and popular press
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:231-3. 2004
  7. pmc Studies on the effect of MDMA ('ecstasy') on the body temperature of rats housed at different ambient room temperatures
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH
    Br J Pharmacol 146:306-12. 2005
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Free radical trapping as a therapeutic approach to neuroprotection in stroke: experimental and clinical studies with NXY-059 and free radical scavengers
    A Richard Green
    Global Discovery CNS and Pain Control, AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 4:109-18. 2005
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint A review of the mechanisms involved in the acute MDMA (ecstasy)-induced hyperthermic response
    A Richard Green
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 500:3-13. 2004
    ..These results suggest that any MDMA-induced hyperthermic response will be enhanced in hot, crowded dance club conditions and that ingesting the drug in such conditions increases the possibility of subsequent cerebral neurotoxic effect...
  10. ncbi request reprint The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy")
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough, LE11 5RH, UK
    Pharmacol Rev 55:463-508. 2003
    ..However, such evidence is complicated by the lack of knowledge of doses ingested and the fact that many subjects studied are or have been poly-drug users...
  11. ncbi request reprint A brief history of British Pharmacological Society meetings
    A Richard Green
    Global Discovery CNS and Pain Control, AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 27:177-81. 2006
    ..However, evidence suggests that the Society will continue to move strongly and confidently towards its 100th birthday...
  12. ncbi request reprint Protecting the brain: the search for a clinically effective neuroprotective drug for stroke
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough, UK
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 16:91-7. 2004
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of stroke
    A Richard Green
    Global Discovery CNS and Pain Control, AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough, LE11 5RH, UK
    Drug Discov Today 11:681-93. 2006
    ..There are a variety of new neuroprotective compounds in the early stages of investigation and some could prove clinically effective, provided appropriate preclinical development guidelines are observed...
  14. ncbi request reprint GABA potentiation: a logical pharmacological approach for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke
    A R Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Rd, LE11 5RH, Loughborough, UK
    Neuropharmacology 39:1483-94. 2000
    ..The diversity of GABA(A) receptor subtypes and the in vivo efficacy of certain GABA(A) receptor ligands in animal models of stroke suggests that GABAmimetic drugs are an undervalued approach to stroke therapy...
  15. ncbi request reprint Why do neuroprotective drugs that are so promising in animals fail in the clinic? An industry perspective
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough, England
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:1030-4. 2002
    ..5. It is concluded that we will only achieve the goal of producing a clinically effective neuroprotective agent if the guidelines have been met by the novel compound under investigation...
  16. ncbi request reprint The interaction of AR-A008055 and its enantiomers with the GABA(A) receptor complex and their sedative, muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant activity
    A R Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough LE11 5RH, UK
    Neuropharmacology 41:167-74. 2001
    ..The current data suggest that the proposed GABA uptake inhibitory property of (R)-(+)-AR-A008055 fails to produce significant sedative, myorelaxant or anticonvulsant activity...
  17. ncbi request reprint The role of 5-HT in the impairment of thermoregulation observed in rats administered MDMA ('ecstasy') when housed at high ambient temperature
    Kathryn S Saadat
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:884-90. 2005
    ....
  18. pmc The pharmacology of the acute hyperthermic response that follows administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') to rats
    Annis O Mechan
    Pharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9RH
    Br J Pharmacol 135:170-80. 2002
    ..This has implications for the clinical treatment of MDMA-induced hyperthermia...
  19. ncbi request reprint The acute and long-term neurotoxic effects of MDMA on marble burying behaviour in mice
    Kathryn S Saadat
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 20:264-71. 2006
    ..Long-term loss of cerebral 5-HT content also produced a similar effect. Since this change was observed only after 28 days, it is probably due to an adaptive response in the brain...
  20. ncbi request reprint Brain penetration of the novel free radical trapping neuroprotectant NXY-059 in rats subjected to permanent focal ischemia
    A Richard Green
    AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Bakewell Rd, Loughborough LE11 5RH, Sweden
    Brain Res 1072:224-6. 2006
    ..These data demonstrate that NXY-059 does penetrate brain tissue in control animals and ischemic tissue of animals subjected to pMCAO...
  21. ncbi request reprint High-dose MDMA does not result in long-term changes in impulsivity in the rat
    Kathryn S Saadat
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Monfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 188:75-83. 2006
    ..MDMA effects on impulsivity in users are difficult to establish being confounded by polydrug use and individual predisposition to impulsivity or behavioral inhibition...
  22. ncbi request reprint Effect of 5-HT depletion by MDMA on hyperthermia and Arc mRNA induction in rat brain
    Thomas J R Beveridge
    School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:346-52. 2004
    ..The pharmacological and anatomical basis of these effects are unclear. At high doses, MDMA also causes selective neurotoxicity at serotonergic nerve terminals...
  23. ncbi request reprint Glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition of L-glutamate efflux from cerebral cortex in vitro
    Atticus H Hainsworth
    Pharmacology Research Group, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
    Brain Res 1114:36-40. 2006
    ..These data support a modulatory effect of glutamate receptors on L-glutamate efflux...
  24. ncbi request reprint Investigating the free radical trapping ability of NXY-059, S-PBN and PBN
    Helen E Williams
    AstraZeneca, Pharmaceutical and Analytical R and D, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Free Radic Res 41:1047-52. 2007
    ..The results obtained showed that NXY-059 trapped a greater number of hydroxyl and methanol radicals than the other two nitrones, under the conditions studied...
  25. doi request reprint Optimising in vivo pharmacology studies--Practical PKPD considerations
    Johan Gabrielsson
    PKPD section, Drug discovery DMPK and BAC, CVGI, AstraZeneca R and D Molndal, S 43183 Mölndal, Sweden
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 61:146-56. 2010
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Electrophysiological actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid and clomethiazole on recombinant GABA(A) receptors
    Rachael M Nelson
    Pharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, LE1 9BH, Leicester, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 452:255-62. 2002
    ..8-fold increase in maximal current. Both direct activation and gamma-aminobutyric acid potentiation are likely to contribute to the in vivo profile of clomethiazole...
  27. ncbi request reprint Nitrone-related therapeutics: potential of NXY-059 for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke
    Kirk R Maples
    Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc, Palo Alto, California, USA
    CNS Drugs 18:1071-84. 2004
    ..Further experiments are required to fully elucidate the mechanism of action of these very effective neuroprotective agents...
  28. ncbi request reprint Studies, using in vivo microdialysis, on the effect of the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy')-induced dopamine release and free radical formation in the mouse striatum
    Jorge Camarero
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    J Neurochem 81:961-72. 2002
    ..The data also indicate that the free radical formation is probably not associated with the MDMA-induced dopamine release and that MDMA does not induce dopamine release via an action at the dopamine transporter...
  29. ncbi request reprint The nitrone disodium 2,4-sulphophenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone is without cytoprotective effect on sodium nitroprusside-induced cell death in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells in vitro
    Atticus H Hainsworth
    Division of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s University of London, London, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28:24-8. 2008
    ..These results support recent data suggesting that in vivo NXY-059 probably acts at the neurovascular unit rather than at an intracellular site as a neuroprotective agent...
  30. ncbi request reprint On the anxiogenic and anxiolytic nature of long-term cerebral 5-HT depletion following MDMA
    A Richard Green
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162:448-50. 2002
  31. ncbi request reprint The nNOS inhibitor, AR-R17477AR, prevents the loss of NF68 immunoreactivity induced by methamphetamine in the mouse striatum
    Veronica Sanchez
    Departamento de Farmacologia and Facultad de Medicina Instituto de Bioquimica CSIC UCM, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    J Neurochem 85:515-24. 2003
    ..These data indicate that both the reduction of NF68 immunoreactivity and the loss of dopamine concentration are due to an oxidative stress process mediated by reactive nitrogen species, and are not due to changes in body temperature...
  32. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the neuroprotective effect of clomethiazole, AR-R15896AR and NXY-059 in a primate model of stroke using histological and behavioural measures
    Jonathan W B Marshall
    MRC Comparative Cognition Team, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Brain Res 972:119-26. 2003
    ..The overview of the behavioural effects and these new histological findings suggest that NXY-059 was by far the most effective neuroprotective agent of the three examined...
  33. ncbi request reprint Functional and histological evidence for the protective effect of NXY-059 in a primate model of stroke when given 4 hours after occlusion
    Jonathan W B Marshall
    Medical Research Council Comparative Cognition Team, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Stroke 34:2228-33. 2003
    ..This study examined the efficacy of this drug when administered 4 hours after onset, a more clinically relevant time point...
  34. ncbi request reprint Hyperthermic and neurotoxic effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in guinea pigs
    Kathryn S Saadat
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:452-3. 2004
  35. ncbi request reprint 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases interleukin-1beta levels and activates microglia in rat brain: studies on the relationship with acute hyperthermia and 5-HT depletion
    Laura Orio
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain
    J Neurochem 89:1445-53. 2004
    ..Contrary to IL-1beta levels, microglial activation is not significantly modified when hyperthermia is prevented, suggesting that it might be a process not dependent on the hyperthermic response induced by MDMA...
  36. ncbi request reprint Elevation of ambient room temperature has differential effects on MDMA-induced 5-HT and dopamine release in striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats
    Esther O'Shea
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:1312-23. 2005
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Effect of repeated ('binge') dosing of MDMA to rats housed at normal and high temperature on neurotoxic damage to cerebral 5-HT and dopamine neurones
    Veronica Sanchez
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    J Psychopharmacol 18:412-6. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint On the protection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity by benzamide, a PARP inhibitor
    Esther O'Shea
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:317-9. 2003
  39. ncbi request reprint Acute and long-term effects of MDMA on cerebral dopamine biochemistry and function
    M Isabel Colado
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:249-63. 2004
    ..The objective of this review is to examine the actions of MDMA on dopamine biochemistry and function in mice, rats, guinea pigs, monkeys and humans...